Seminários em Neurociências 2012.1

Data: 16/05/2012

Onde: na biblioteca do ICe-UFRN

Palestrante: Igor Maldonado, UFBA
Hora: 11 am
Título: Language and brain white matter: what do we know?

The knowledge of the form and function of fiber pathways supports the modeling of cognitive networks, the development of neurosurgical approaches and the interpretation of neuroimaging. We used a hybrid anatomical and neurophysiological methodology whose main objective was to characterize the subunits of the complex comprised of the Superior Longitudinal and the Arcuate Fasciculus (SLF/AF) as well as their participation in the articulatory, phonological and semantic language functions. Sixty-eight cerebral hemispheres were prepared using a variant of the fiber dissection technique known as the Klingler's method. In parallel, we studied the electrical functional maps of fourteen patients operated on using a sleep-awake-sleep technique for
brain tumors of the temporo-parietal junction in the dominant hemisphere. Based on our laboratory and neuroimaging findings, as well as on the available literature, we conducted a correlation of clinical manifestations caused by the electrical stimulation and the topography of the association bundles. The anatomical preparations allowed us to detail the three-dimensional organization of hemispheric white matter, to perform the first description of the Middle Longitudinal Fasciculus using fiber dissection, and to characterize three of the four components of the SLF: the major, the ventral and the arcuate. The existence of a dorsal
component along the superior edge of the hemisphere was not confirmed by our findings, a hypothesis in the literature that was based on the anatomy of the nonhuman primate and on previous studies on neuroimaging. The functional anatomy of the inferior parietal lobule was revisited as well as the pathways of white matter in its depth. The inter-individual variability in the distribution of eloquent areas was evident, especially for language.
These areas were used to delineate the tumor resection, namely: the primary sensory cortex, anteriorly; the Wernicke's area, inferiorly and laterally, and the white matter pathways from the SLF/AF in the white matter. At this level, the observation of the clinical manifestations in connection with the electrical disturbance caused by the cerebral stimulation allowed us to conclude that the ventral opercular component of the SLF has a role in the articulatory function and the deeper arcuate component is involved in the phonological function. The functional mapping does not provide any argument for a participation of this association complex in the treatment of semantics, an assumption in the literature that was based only on neuroimaging. These findings may have important implications, both in clinical practice and in fundamental research, including for modeling the neural basis of language.

Notícia cadastrada em: 14/05/2012 16:41
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